This study tour is intended to immerse students in Andean culture in a way that reflects the cross-disciplinary nature of Latin American Studies as well as Environmental Studies. Therefore, the itinerary and coursework introduce students to the Andean region through multiple disciplinary lenses, with an emphasis on art history, history, political science, and the study of the landscape and environment of this particular region of the world both in PreColumbian and modern contexts. We will be based in the old Inka capital of Cusco, with trips to the ancient and colonial sites of Cuatro Ruinas (including Sacsayhuaman, Q’enko, Tambo Machay, and Puka Pukara), the Sacred Valley sites of Pisac, Ollantaytambo, Maras, Moray, and Machu Picchu as well as the colonial site of Andahuaylillas.
On our way back to the US, we will briefly visit the old city center of Lima, capital of Peru. Students will interact with Peruvians through homestays, a weaving workshop in Chinchero and a ceramics workshop in Cusco. We will study the places we visit with a particular emphasis on Inka, Colonial, and Contemporary approaches to the natural environment. For example, the Inka understood the environment around them to be deified and created art and architecture that communicated with mountains, water sources, rock quarries and/or other features of the surrounding landscape. Spanish (colonial) and Modern Peruvian institutions were created to exploit the environment, and to benefit, in most cases, colonial and international powers.
Contemporary approaches to tourism in Peru focus on environmental impacts of many visitors on the environment. Considered as a whole, the study tour provides students with an overview of Andean culture and indigenous people across time and space from its ancient roots through the present.
Participation (15% of overall grade)
All students are expected to participate to the best of their physical and mental abilities and with courtesy and respect in all discussions, workshops, tours, etc.
Reading Responses and Discussions (15% of overall grade)
All readings must be completed by the date of the reading listed on the syllabus.
You must prepare a one-page (double-spaced) summary (4 pages handwritten, but legible!) of one reading for each class listed on the syllabus to bring to class. Readings and these responses will form the basis of seminars, so please come prepared and able to discuss.
Journal (10% of overall grade)
You must a write a minimum of 4 entries per week, the 1st 4 due Monday, May 23 by midnight, the 2nd 4 due Monday, May 30th by midnight – You can either post your entries in the journal tab set up for you on BlackBoard, or if you don’t have access to a computer while in Peru, in handwritten form to either Professor Brodsky or Phillips during our time in Peru. The journal is not for your course notes or reading summary, but will record your personal experiences of the trip. You will determine the length, but entries should include your reflections on your host family, places you visit, ideas related to class or discussions you have, etc. Use your journal sincerely, wisely, and regularly.
Film Review and Assessment (10% of overall grade)
We will watch two documentaries on the Andes that focus on the effects of mining in general and on water sources in particular: Daughter of the Lake and Potosi: La mina del diablo. You will be asked to choose one film to summarize and assess. You should connect the historical context that gave rise of the contemporary situation as highlighted in the film and readings. Alternatively, you could discuss the processes of metal extraction and its effects on the environment in the contemporary Andes.
Cusco Project (10% of overall grade)
Students will be divided into small groups to work on a project that will involve engaging with, visiting, and recording topographies, and museums exhibits. The groups will present their findings to the rest of the class while in Cusco.
Response Essay (3-5 pp. typed, double-spaced, due June 3rd on BB at midnight) –15% of overall grade
The essay should synthesize readings, discussion and your personal experiences related to the assigned topic.
Choose one of the following topics. If seeking ENST credits, make sure you choose a topic that focuses on the environment.
Essay 1 – Environment and Culture in Inka/Colonial times
Please consider indigenous approaches to the Andean landscape. How did the Inka create solutions in art and architecture to such environmental challenges as extreme altitudes, tendency for natural disaster, and “vertical archipelago” (compacted ecozones from low to high altitudes so that no one ecozone is self-sufficient)? Examine how attitudes toward a deified landscape come into play in Andean approaches to art, architecture and politics.
Essay 2 – Contemporary Peru
You may choose an aspect of contemporary Peruvian life. Topics may include politics, environmental studies, popular culture, indigenous culture, etc. You must create or provide your own documentation (must include at least 2) to consider – might include interviews, newspapers, photographs, video, or other appropriate sources of information.
Final Paper (25% of overall grade)
- 10-page research paper
- Topic and format to be determined in consult with instructors no later than June 2. If seeking ENST credit, the topic must focus on some aspect of the Andean (past or present) environment.
- Bibliography and, if for Art History credits, illustrations
- Due: Thursday, June 30th at midnight– posted to Blackboard as an attachment
- Please label your file using the following format: PeruLastNameFinal.doc – For example: PeruBrodskyFinal.doc (use the same format for other types of files – ppt/jpg/etc.). If you are uploading more than one file, just add increasing numbers to the file name (ex: PeruBrodskyFinal2.jpg, PeruBrodskyFinal3.jpg, etc.)
ALL requirements must be completed to pass this course.
Course Mechanics and Policies
Deadlines: All deadlines are FINAL, no extensions or make-ups will be granted. There will be no incompletes for this course. Late written assignments will be marked down 5 points if turned in late on the day of the deadline and 10 points per day after that.
ELAW Requirement: If you are using this class to fulfill your ELAW requirement, please note that there are deadlines to meet, and that it is NOT the responsibility of the faculty leading the Study Tour to remind you about these dates. Before you leave for Perú, please be aware of those requirements and deadlines.
Academic Dishonesty – The instructors have a zero-tolerance policy on academic dishonesty for all assignments. Be familiar with the official SMCM policies on academic dishonesty as outlined in “Student Code of Rights and Responsibilities” in the SMCM Student Handbook http://www.smcm.edu/campus/studhandbook.cfm Students who violate College rules on academic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary penalties, including failure of the assignment, failure in the course and/or penalties determined by the Judiciary Board – which may include dismissal from the College. Since such dishonesty harms the individual, all students and the integrity of the College, policies on academic dishonesty will be strictly enforced.
Seminar Schedule and Required Reading
Class during Spring 2016 (date TBA), Introduction to the Andes, the Inka, and Conquest
Rebecca Stone-Miller, Art of the Andes, Intro. & Inka Chapter.
Sun 5/15 Arrival in Lima. Transfer to Cusco. Acclimatization.
Mon 5/16 2pm City Tour of Cusco
Tue 5/17 10 am – 12:30 p.m. Survival Quechua class
Visit to San Pedro market
Briefing for trip to 4 Ruins
Pm Documentary Night (tentative)
Wed 5/18 10 a.m. – 12 p.m. SEMINAR: Introduction to Inka Architecture – Professor Phillips
Dean, A Culture of Stone: Inka Perspectives on Rock (Intro and Chap. 4)
2:00pm Tour of Cuatro Ruinas – Q’enqo, Sacsayhuaman, Puka Pukara, Tambo Machay
Thu 5/19 8am Travel to Chinchero – Textile demonstration and workshop
pm Travel to Maras and Moray –saltpans and agricultural station
Fri 5/20 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. SEMINAR: Colonial History– Professor Brodsky
Burns, Kathryn, “Gender and the Politics of Mestizaje: The Convent of Santa Clara in Cuzco, Peru,” Hispanic American Historical Review 78(1), 1998, 5-44.
Robins, Nicholas A. Mercury, mining, and empire: the human and ecological cost of colonial silver mining in the Andes. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011 (Chapters TBA)
Graubart, Karen B, “Weaving and the Construction of a Gender Division of Labor in Early Colonial Peru,” American Indian Quarterly 24(4), 2000, 537-61
Briefing for the South Valley
Sat 5/21 8am Travel to the South Valley
Sun 5/22 8am Travel to Sacred Valley
Mon 5/23 9 a.m. to noon SEMINAR: Inka Hydraulics and Wari Culture – Professor Phillips
End of Colonialism and Modern Peru— Professor Brodsky
Wright, Tipon: Water Engineering Masterpiece of the Inca Empire, 2006 (pp TBA).
McEwan, “The Functions of Pikillacta,” Pikillacta: The Wari Empire in Cuzco, 2005, pp. 164-168.
Cadena, Marisol de la. Indigenous Mestizos: The Politics of Race and Culture in Cuzco, Peru, 1919-1991. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 1-40.
Cushman, Gregory T. Guano and the Opening of the Pacific World: A Global Ecological History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014
Pm: Pottery workshop
Tue 5/24 8 a.m. to noon SEMINAR: Machu Picchu and Ollantaytambo – Professor Phillips
Cultural Patrimony and Tourism– Professor Brodsky
Protzen, Jean-Pierre. Inka Architecture and Construction at Ollantaytambo, pp. TBA.
Maxwell, Keely. “Tourism, Environment, and Development on the Inca Trail,” HAHR (92.1), (February 2012): 143-171.
Bingham, The Discovery of Machu Picchu, pp. 7-18
Heaney, “Bonesmen: Did Yale Plunder Peru?,” New Republic, Oct. 23, 2006.
Briefing for Machu Picchu
PmDocumentary Night (Tentative)
Wed 5/25 am Bus to Ollantaytambo
Guided tour of Machu Picchu
Night in Aguas Calientes
Thu 5/26 5am Self-tour of Machu Picchu, Wayna Picchu, Sun Gate or Templo de la Cueva
Lunch in Aguas Calientes and train back to Cusco
Fri 5/27 10 a.m. to noon — Final paper topics finalized and approved
Optional group dinner in evening
Sat 5/28amDomestic flight to Lima
pm City Tour of Colonial Lima
evening Flight to USA
Mon 5/30 Response essay due on BlackBoard by midnight
Thu 6/30 Final Papers due on BlackBoard by midnight (late assignments will not be accepted)